Academician Jordan Malinowski was born on 03.06.1923 ...
Acad. J. Malinowski (1923 - 1996)
Academician Jordan Malinowski was born on 03.06.1923 in Sliven, Bulgaria. He studied in the American college in Sofia and after graduation in 1943, he took part in the World War II and was awarded a medal. In 1948 he graduated the Faculty of mathematics and physics with specialty “Chemistry” in Sofia State University “Kl. Ohridski” and worked as a research associate in the field of physical chemistry. From 1948 up to 1958 he was a research associate in the Institute of Physics to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS). He got his PhD degree in chemistry in 1958 and his Doctor of Science degree in 1969. In 1959 he was elected for an associated professor, and in 1964 – for professor in the Institute of physical chemistry to BAS. In 1989 he was elected for an academician of BAS. He was a founder of the Central laboratory of photoprocesses to BAS (1967) being its director up to 1992, when it was elected for the President of BAS. He remained on this high position till the end of his life in 1996.
Academician Jordan Malinowski began his scientific activity in the field of electro-crystallization under the guidance of academician Rostislav Kaishev. As a research associate in the Institute of Physics to BAS, he obtained substantial results on physical formation of photo-emulsions. He developed a method for differential development which permitted creation of photo-materials with new improved characteristics and which had been applied by many photographic firms. A special place in his scientific activity took simulations of the mechanism of the elementary photo-process for mono-crystals of silver bromide. For this purpose a method was developed for direct synthesis of mono-crystals from super-pure silver halides, which is still widely used all over the world for synthesis of compounds of high purity that are sensitive to light and other radiations.
Further in his career, the interests of academician Jordan Malinowski were focused on study of formation of the “latent image” - an invisible image, formed at illumination of the photo-sensitive material, which is visualized by means of physical and chemical development. The obtained unique results proved the important role of the so called photo-holes in the photoinduced changes in silver halides. These results were in the base of a new theory, which became wellknown in the international scientific literature as a “symmetric scheme of Malinowski”. It takes in account both electrons and photo-holes. It has been established by modeling that one of the rather complicated and unclear processes – action of the developer which distinguishes the exposed from the non-exposed parts of the photo-material – is a special case of the theory of crystal growth. The systematic research made possible clarification of the photographic process also in others photo-sensitive materials, including non-silver compounds. Advanced technologies for photomaterials production have been developed on the basis of highly effective completely dry approach for deposition of silver and non-silver light-sensitive substances by evaporation in vacuum. Practical implementation of the pioneer achievements of academician Jordan Malinowski made possible organization of a new for Bulgaria high-tech field – production of photo-raster transducers.
Academician Jordan Malinowski was widely recognized all over the world. He was an honorable member of the Royal society of the United Kingdom, of American and Japanese societies for photographic science and technique, of European academy of sciences, art and literature, of Academy of Valonia in Belgium etc. He was awarded numerious national and international awards as the medal of the German academy for natural sciences, Lieven-Gevaert Medal – the most prestigious award of American society for photographic science and technique, award for the best paper of the year of the American journal for photographic science and technique (2 times); Dimitrov award; decorations “Republic Bulgaria” – ІІІ degree, “Cyrill and Methodius” – ІІ degree, medal “1300 anniversary of Bulgaria”, medal “100 years BAS” etc. Many years he was a member of the International committee for photographic science and editor in prestigious international journals. As an outstanding scientist he was invited to deliver keynote lectures at all international conferences in the field of photographic processes.
As a president of BAS academician Jordan Malinowski fruitfully worked for reforming the Academy. He made a lot of efforts to keep the leading position of BAS in the scientific community of Bulgaria and Bulgarian society. Doctor's thesis of Acad. J. Malinowski (in Bulgarian, .pdf)
Influence of ZnCl2 concentration on the structural and optical properties of ZnO electrochemical layers, coordinator assoc. prof. Konstantin Lovchinov, PhD. The achievement is in the field of optical materials and nano-technology. Electrochemical deposition of nanostructured thin films of ZnO on glass substrates coated with a thin layer of SnO2 was performed. The nanostructured ZnO films ...
Most significant scientific achievement for 2018
Influence of ZnCl2 concentration on the structural and optical properties of ZnO electrochemical layers, coordinator assoc. prof. Konstantin Lovchinov, PhD.
Top - 3D image of electrochemically deposited ZnO at a concentration of ZnCl2 of 1 × 10-2 M, bottom left - SEM micrograph of electrochemically deposited ZnO at a concentration of ZnCl2 of 1 × 10-2 M, on the right - diffuse reflection spectra of electrochemically deposited layers of ZnO.
The achievement is in the field of optical materials and nano-technology. Electrochemical deposition of nanostructured thin films of ZnO on glass substrates coated with a thin layer of SnO2 was performed. The nanostructured ZnO films are obtained by electrochemical process by using a tri-electrode system with a saturated calomel reference electrode in an aqueous solution containing ZnCl2 and KCl. The effect of ZnCl2 concentration on the structural properties of the resulting ZnO layers was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometer (Fig. 1). Micrographs of SEM show that ZnO films consist of nanograins at lower ZnCl2 concentrations that are transformed at the highest concentration in nano-walls with large free spaces between them resulting in high roughness. By increasing the deposition time of these layers, growth of smaller formations located in the gaps between the nano-walls results in a decrease in the average roughness of the layers. The high diffuse reflection values and the diffuse to total reflection ratio in the 400-900nm spectral range are due to the larger grain size and surface roughness of the films. ZnO layers with similar properties could be used as light trapping structures in thin-layer solar photoelements. The results are published in Lovchinov, K, Marinov, G, Petrov, M, Tyutyundzhiev, N, Babeva, T., “Influence of ZnCl2 concentration on the structural and optical properties of electrochemically deposited nanostructured ZnO,” Applied Surface Science, 456, Elsevier, 2018, ISSN:0169-4332, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.06.088, 69-74. ISI IF:3.387 (Q1 journal, first place in the “Materials Science, Coatings & Films”).
Most significant applied scientific achievement for 2018
Dynamic speckle metrology with transformation of registered 8-bit speckle images into binary, coordinator prof. Elena Stoykova, DSc. The achievement is in the field of optical metrology and is a method for characterizing the speed of processes by recording time-correlated speckle images. Characterization ...
Most significant applied scientific achievement for 2018
Dynamic speckle metrology with transformation of registered 8-bit speckle images into binary coordinator prof. Elena Stoykova, DSc.
Top: 8-bit speckle image and its transformation into binary image with only two levels. Bottom: a coin as a test object, a speckle image of the coin covered with non-transparent paint, an activity map showing the different vaporization rate on the coin surface after the binarization.
The achievement is in the field of optical metrology and is a method for characterizing the speed of processes by recording time-correlated speckle images. Characterization is performed by statistical processing of the intensity fluctuations at each point of these images. As a result, the two-dimensional distribution of a given statistical parameter (activity map), is constructed. It is proposed to convert registered 8-bit speckle images into binary images with only two levels by comparing the intensity at each point with a predefined threshold, such as the mean value of the intensity at the point (Fig.2). The efficiency of the proposed approach was demonstrated by simulating and processing experimental data for test objects, such as a coin coated with non-transparent paint, which vaporizes at different speeds on the grooves and embossments of the coin. This method accelerates processing and reduces computer memory requirements to store data. The developed method is applied to monitor the drying rate of polymer solutions. The results are published in Q1 paper Stoykova, E., Kang, H., Kim, Y., Nazarova, D., Nedelchev, L., Ivanov, B., Berberova, N., Mateev, G. Evaluation of activity from binary patterns in dynamic speckle analysis. Optics Las. Eng. 2018, 111, 5
The Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies (IOMT) “Academician Jordan Malinowski” has been established on July 1, 2010 by merging two research units: The Central Laboratory of Photo-processes and The Central Laboratory of Optical Recording and Processing of Information. The main research goals of the institute are: ⁕ Investigation of ...
The Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies (IOMT) “Academician Jordan Malinowski” has been established on July 1, 2010 by merging two research units: The Central Laboratory of Photo-processes and The Central Laboratory of Optical Recording and Processing of Information. The main research goals of the institute are: ⁕ Investigation of photo-induced processes in micro- and nano-sized layers and structures and to develop high-technology novel materials and methods for optical applications in flexible transparent electronics, ecology, biomedicine, food industry, non-destructive testing and cultural heritage protection; ⁕ Training of highly qualified personnel in these areas. Training of graduates and postgraduates; ⁕ Carrying out interdisciplinary research and joint projects with experts from other research units; ⁕ Implementation of the scientific product through innovation and knowledge transfer to industry.◊